The History Of Reading-4000dy

Reference-and-Education In terms of evolution reading is a relatively new skill, something that is not innate, but has to be learned. As writing can differ between cultures, so then is how we actually read. .pare for example, our alphabetic scripts against the logographic picture style of the Chinese. Written scripts have undergone many changes over the centuries, and written text has evolved into today’s format progressing through several different alphabets, but still only taking a mere 500 years to reach its present form. So where did it all start? Tracing back thru time, we can find basic evidence around the 4th millennium BC where marks were made on clay tablets. Archaeologists argue the prehistory of books began near Babylon, and that the art of writing was probably invented for .mercial reasons. For example, recording how many oxen one owns etc. These tablets are among the oldest examples of writing known, and just by looking at these, and trying to guess their meaning, reflects the preservation of a thought that occurred long after they were written. Writing was recognized as a powerful skill and scribes rose swiftly through the ranks of Mesopotamian society. Although reading was seen as important, it did not get as much notice as the ability to record the data. As the scribes knew, and society was to find, the written word depended on the ability to restore it, that is, to read it. By the 2nd millennium BC, Mesopotamian script changed from pictographic to cuneiform writing (wedge shaped signs representing sounds instead of objects), and by around 2000BC the first true alphabetic system (where a phoneme is represented by a letter) appeared. Although perhaps a Greek development, the Egyptian alphabetic system shows some elements of such representations. All European languages are derived from the Greek alphabet. Before the advent of printing, scribes laboriously provided the production of text. Knowing Latin well enough to read and speak it regardless of the vernacular one spoke marked an individual as literate, and literacy tended to be limited to those of privileged birth. By the 15th century, Gutenberg invented the first printing press in Germany in 1440. Printing removed the need for scribes to reproduce texts and made reading material more available in the languages of the people. By the mid 16th century school systems were starting to expand, and the term literate became more of a descriptor to dichotomize the population into those who could read and write in the local dialects. In the 17th century, 50% of all titles printed in Europe were religious works. As urbanization and industrialization spread, children began to be removed from the workforce, making them available for education. However, free sponsored education was not instituted until 1870. Reading however, took a big leap during the 19th century when cheap books appeared for the masses. By the end of the 19th century the term literate began to refer to measures of certain skills of reading and writing. Although it would be nice to have universal literacy’ unfortunately this is not the case, depending on how you define literacy itself. For the full article and more, please visit the web site. About the Author: 相关的主题文章: